At intervals the stem and its branches possess swollen areas or nodes. vii. Passage of water from living cells to the xylem channels can occur by: (a) Accumulation of sugars or salts in the tracheary elements of xylem due to either secretion by the nearby living cells or left there during decay of their protoplasts. Nitrogen mainly comes from soil as nitrates and ammonia salts. However, water does not pass into its vacuole. Long distance bulk movement of substances that occurs through conducting or vascular tissues of plants is called translocation. iii. Therefore, photorespiration is a highly wasteful process. Easy Care, Easy to Grow Perennial Plants Whether you're an experienced gardener or just starting out, everyone can appreciate having a few plants in their yard that will thrive without much effort. Plant body is made up of one or more structural unit, the cell. They are important source of energy to run many of our machines. iii. Due to transpiration from the leaf surface, a pull or suction force is produced, as a result of which water is drawn upwards. Free sample english essay about trees. Unlike the essential elements, they do not enter into the composition of plant body but they are absolutely essential as catalysts or growth regulators. Further, climate markedly affects soil and biotic factors. can move from one place to other. Before publishing your Article on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Because of it the phototrophs are called producers, while all other organisms are known as consumers. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. 4. The biochemical intermediates are used for the synthesis of organic compounds that take part in growth, repair and metabolism. Inside the part of the flower that has petals are the parts which produce pollen and seeds. It has been found that minute traces of the elements like boron, zinc, copper, manganese, and molybdenum are equally necessary for the normal development of the plants. It is the first reaction of photorespiration. (ii) It helps in dissipation of energy where stomata get closed during daytime because of water stress. Mutation Breeding was the earlier alternative to provide better yields where an organism is exposed to radiation or chemicals to bring permanent change to the quality of the plant and its yield. They can produce nitrogenous (Quinine, Nicotine, Atropine, Caffeine etc.) Bryophytes like mosses and liverworts produce special bodies, called gemmae, and multiply through them. Conducting and mechanical tissues are very poorly developed. Ethylene is largely plant growth inhibitor but is also involved in some growth promotion activities. A flower is the reproductive part of flowering plants. It bears lateral branches. Importance of Water in Plant Life: Life originated in water. It occurs in cytoplasm and mitochondria. Recent re­searches have, however, shown that minute traces of manganese, boron, zinc, copper and molybdenum are also essential for normal growth. It is quite different from diffusion where substances move independently according to their concentration gradients. Trans­piration may also take place through the lenticels often referred to as lenticular transpi­ration. So all the three belong to the same genus Ficus but form different species. Plant growth regulators are effective at very low concentration, usually in the range of 10-6. v. The site of production and site of action (target cells) of plant growth regulators may be different (as in case of animal hormones) or the same (unlike animal hormones). Succulence for storage of water is very common. Characteristics 8. The amount of water lost by transpi­ration is surprisingly. (i) Knowledge of respiratory quotient helps in determining respiratory substrate. Succulence is common in some plants. It favours oxygenation. ATP is broken down to release energy whenever and wherever energy needs to be utilized. This energy is required to perform all the vital activities of plants. What is a mushroom shaped gland? Apospory is quite common in some ferns in which prothallus, the gameto­phyte, may develop from the sporangia, and even from the leaf. Shoot system is made up of a stem, its branches, leaves, flowers, fruits and their contained seeds. It is the highest group of cryptogams. Leaves are usually broad and thin and possess well-developed stomata. In this pro­cess the stored food materials are utilised. Linnaeus introduced ‘bi­nomial system’ of nomenclature which has been followed all over the world. During thunder storm free nitrogen becomes available to some extent. Every living cell oxidizes its food to release energy. Only some lower plants (e.g., Chlamydo- monas, Volvox etc.) Therefore, energy (from respiration) is involved in active water absorption. This happens only in case of C3 plants. They are three in number viz., auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins. Even to the higher plants, which through series of changes and adjustments have adapted themselves to terrestrial habits, water is of paramount importance. Only some plants can utilise nitrogen in this form for building up complex proteins. Auxins and gibberellins promote cell growth while the three growth pro-motors (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins) are involved in cell division. They may be unicellular (Saccharomyces) or multi­cellular (Agaricus, Polyporus) and the largest known organism in this world is the fungus Armellaria bulbosa (mycelial body) reported from America, which covered an area of more than 12 hectares (30 acres). However, active oxygenation occurs only when CO2: O2 ratio favours it. It is the name of ripened ovary. Here Linn indicates that Linnaeus was the author. viii. On the other hand, during respiration the O2 is being used up and CO2 released. Naked motile ciliated spores of algae are called zoospores. The plants require short photoperiods for floral initiation and long photoperiods for blossoming. (ii) Water can be absorbed by a shoot even in the absence of the root system. Culture solutions of various compositions are used. Of the two heterogametes, the male, called antherozoid or spermatozoid, is, as a rule, much smaller than the female gamete and is motile and active. The phanerogamia sub-kingdom is further divided into two divisions: Gymnospermia and Angiospermia. Some are useful to increase the soil fertility by adding nitrogen through fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. The CO2 contributes about 60% of the greenhouse gases. Instead it can be synthesized at many places by different tissues within the plant body. Phloem translocate organic substances and inorganic solutes first from leaves to all other parts of the plant and storage organs. All plants possess the capa­city to produce offspring of their own type. Trees provide us with two essential things in life these are food and oxygen. Chemical Composition of the Plants: Plant body is made of material units, cells. Water, as well as nutrients, is normally taken up through the roots from the soil. The plants are very much sensi­tive to change in the environment. This is cuticular transpira­tion. What are the three different types of Seed Germination? That the above elements are essential for the healthy growth of a plant can be proved by water-culture experiment (Fig. Therefore, photorespiration is difficult to demonstrate. These are microscopic, uni­cellular microorganisms with a sapro­phytic mode of nutrition (Fig. Jar No. Plants need water so they can grow. Long distance transport occurs through vascular systems, xylem and phloem. From respiration by the overgrowing human population (645 crores) of the world. Phosphoglyceric acid or PGA is used up in Calvin cycle. v. All useful plant products are derived from the process of photosynthesis, e.g., timber, rubber, resins, drugs, oils, fibres, etc. (iii) A plant can be made to flower throughout the year under green house conditions if a favourable photoperiod is being provided to it. Copyright. The epidermal cells have cuticle on the outer walls which is almost impervious to water. In all plants, a flower is usually its most colourful part. Breaking of chemical bonds releases energy and forms a number of biochemical intermediates. Five types of phytohor­mones are known. Thus essential elements are put into two groups. A part of rain water percolates down the soil and becomes available to the plants. Dormancy of the seeds is due to low water content, varying from 10% to 15%. The requirements of these trace elements are fantastically small, not more than 1-3 parts per 100 million parts. Other related growth regulators are salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and brassinosteroids. The ovary contains one or more oval structures termed ovules. learn about how to grow chili peppers in my garden. Amphibious plants have poorly developed root system and ample air-spaces like typical hydrophytes; but they more or less resemble the mesophytes in characters of leaves and arrangement of conducting tissues. Photosynthesis requires CO2, water, chlorophyll and light. After this the plumule grows upwards to form the shoot. Movement of water into and out of cells occurs by a special type of diffusion called osmosis. Flowers have petals. That is mainly carbon which forms almost half the dry weight of the plant. By conducting a series of experiments (to be discussed presently) it has been found that ten elements are very important for the nutrition of plants and the remaining three, referred to as non-essential elements, are not directly concerned with nutrition. Plumule is protected by a few small leaves. These are common devices employed by the florists. This group is further divided into two classes: Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. It should be noted that transpiration is not simple evaporation, but a physiological process where the outgo of water is regulated by protoplasm. (vi) Day Neutral or Indeterminate Plants (DNP): The plants can blossom throughout the year, e.g., Tomato, Pepper, Cucumber, Pea varieties, Sunflower, Maize, Cotton, etc. Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46799383 Plants and Combustion and respiration differ in several aspects. Red light effect can, however, be prevented by immediately providing far- red light. It is the only known method by which oxygen is added to the atmosphere to compensate for oxygen being used in the respiration of organisms and burning of organic fuels. Many aquatic plants often show heterophylly. By osmosis they absorb water from the adjoining cells and become turgid, when they stand away from each other making the stomatal aperture wide open. Protoplasm becomes less and less active if the normal amount of water is removed, until a point is reached when death ensues. In fact, functioning of the mysterious fluid proto­plasm depends on the large amount of water it contains. The other end has radicle or future root. They observed that Maryland Mammoth’ variety of Tobacco could be made to flower in summer by reducing the light hours with artificial darkening. Root system consists of root and its branches. There are the cardinal points, minimum and maximum, below and above which activities are not possible, light is the ultimate source of radiant energy indispensable for photosynthesis. These include influence of living things on plants. Though atmosphere has 78% of mole­cular nitrogen, it is not available to plants as such. The process of photosynthesis is unique to phototrophs which are mainly autotrophic plants. (The Greenhouse Effect is the rise in tempe­rature that the earth experiences because of certain gases in the atmosphere such as water vapour, CO2, nitrous oxide, methane, tropospheric ozone, chlorofluorocarbons and halons. Nitrates thus formed are readily absorbed by the plants and utilised. Sum-total of biochemical changes that takes place in the protoplasm of a living cell is called metabolism. Essay # 13. CO2 and ammonia are released in the process. Lowest plants like the green algae live in water. Therefore, photosyn­thesis is also defined as an enzyme mediated anabolic process of manufacture of organic compounds inside the chlorophyll containing cells from carbon dioxide and hydrogen donor with the help of radiant energy. Essay # 18. Where are the pollen grains formed in the flower? It is abundantly present in the middle lamella of the wall. Product of fusion of two isogametes is zygospore and the process is known as conjugation. At high temperature, concentration of dissolved CO2 in equilibrium with air decreases more than concentration of O2. This method essentially involves the fusion of two usually naked sexual or reproductive units called gametes. If we do this, our plants will thrive, we’ll grow nutritious, healthy food, and our soil conditions All the articles you read in this site are contributed by users like you, with a single vision to liberate knowledge. In India rains are asso­ciated with monsoon winds. The percentage of water in plants is very high, often as much as 95%. The white in­combustible residue left behind is ash, which is nothing but the oxides of the metals constituting the plant body. Living cells in active metabolic condition are essential for this. The term shoot is applied to stem along with its leaves. This nitric oxide unites with O4 of form nitrogen peroxide—2NO+O2=2NO2. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? The plants may consist of single cell (unicellular) or many cells (multi­cellular) and the sex organs are, in general, unicellular. Importance of Water 13. The nitrogen of the air combines with oxygen to form nitric oxide—Na-+ O2=2NO. Role of a nonessential but functional element. Each cell has proto­plasm usually surrounded by a rigid wall. Find long and short essay on Benefits of Planting Trees for Children and Students. A few wide mouthed jars are taken, thoroughly washed and rinsed in nitric acid. Some amount of water is uti­lised for metabolic activities and the surplus goes out as water vapour. The tip of a rootlet is covered by a root cap. The radicle of the seed grows first to form the root. One end of embryo axis possesses plumule or future shoot. Fruit has a wall or pericarp and one or more seeds. 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