However, this factor does not work to increases one’s chances of developing periodontal disease. However, it should be noted that the development of periodontal lesions vary among HIV-positive patients depending on the status of their immune system and maintenance of oral hygiene. Other risk factors include: 1. Rough …………… Contents available in the book…………. Underlying immuno-deficiencies—e.g., AIDS 8. van Winkelhoff AJ, Bosch-Tijhof CJ, Winkel EG, van der Reijden WA. The presence of hyperactive neutrophils and monocytes in individuals showing severe periodontal breakdown has been demonstrated in many studies, Various studies have demonstrated that with increasing age the severity of periodontal diseases increases, In general, males have been shown to have more overall periodontal destruction as compared to females. These areas become inaccessible for cleaning by the patient and promote the formation of a periodontal pocket. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. However, it must be remembered that bleeding on probing does not indicate the severity of periodontal breakdown. Systemic conditions associated with reduced neutrophil numbers or function are also important risk factors … COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. An overall assessment of risk factors is an integral part of the periodontal maintenance program. Furthermore, the position of the margin of restoration is also related to the gingival health. Further, it has been found that certain individuals mount an abnormal host response to the microbial challenge. The poor glycemic control worsens periodontal disease status and poor periodontal health has been shown to worsen the glycemic control. three primary mechanisms by which local factors can increase the risk of developing periodontal disease or increase the severity of existing periodontal disease. USA.gov. Modifiable risk factors are usually environmental or behavioral in nature, whereas non-modifiable risk factors are usually intrinsic to the individual and therefore can not be easily changed. Smoking 2. Local risk factors can increase the risk of development and progression of periodontal disease by acting as plaque retention factors. Dental Clinics. However, it has been demonstrated that absence of bleeding on probing is a good indicator of periodontal health, Periobasics A Textbook of Periodontics and Implantology, Text Book of Basic Sciences for MDS Students. Certain medications that cause dry mouth or gum changes 11. Thus, reduction in the microbial load around the teeth is the cornerstone of periodontal therapy. Risk factors which we know today as important include diabetes mellitus, especially in individuals in whom metabolic control is poor, and cigarette smoking. The presence of hyperactive neutrophils and monocytes in individuals showing severe periodontal breakdown has been demonstrated in many studies 32-35. The poor glycemic control worsens periodontal disease status and poor periodontal health has been shown to worsen the glycemic control. A lot of research has been done in the last few decades to find out various risk factors responsible for periodontal disease progression. Effects of probiotic bacterium Weissella cibaria CMU on periodontal health and microbiota: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. To establish a factor as a risk factor or determinant for periodontal disease, the evidence … Stress management has been shown to improve the periodontal status of patients with periodontitis 27. 1. increase in developing gingivitis and periodontitis 2. increase the risk of developing more sever disease when gingivitis/periodontitis is already present Orthodontic appliances. Certain drugs which are in a chewable form, commonly have sugar as one of their constituents. Supra- and subgingival calculus deposits act as local plaque retention factors. Thus, smoking can be considered as a modifiable risk factor for the development and progression of periodontal diseases. It may alter the pH of the oral cavity, thus affecting plaque composition 67. References are available in the hard-copy of the website. Contents available in the book…………. Smoking or chewing tobacco 7. These include anti-hypertensive drugs, narcotic analgesics, some tranquilizers and sedatives, antihistamines, and antimetabolites. Fraenal attachments. Contreras A, Umeda M, Chen C, Bakker I, Morrison JL, Slots J. J Periodontol. Research demonstrates that stress can make it more difficult for the body to fight off infection, including periodontal diseases. This finding establishes tobacco smoking as an important risk factor for the development of periodontitis. Stress also is a risk factor for periodontal disease. Smoking or chewing tobacco 4. 2005 Jan;7(1):3. 1. Systemic risk factors recently have been identified by large epidemiologic studies using multifactorial statistical analyses to correct for confounding or associated co-risk factors. Thus, stress can be considered as a modifiable risk factor that may influence the severity of periodontal diseases. However, the relationship between socioeconomic status and periodontitis is less direct as compared to gingivitis, Osteoporosis is characterized by a decreased bone-mineral density throughout the skeletal system, including the jaws. Step 1. Sources. Calcium intake was also found to be reduced in this age group.  |  This website is a small attempt to create an easy approach to understand periodontology for the students who are facing difficulties during the graduation and the post-graduation courses in our field. Multiple risk factors do not increase the risk in an additive manner, but rather in an exponential manner. Subgingival margins of the restorations have been shown to have a positive correlation with the presence of gingival inflammation 68-70.  |  To reiterate, modifying factors are also systemic factors like risk factors. Obesity 8. Colomb Med (Cali). Other factors increasing the risk of developing periodontal disease: Bridges that no longer fit properly trap food debris and allow dental plaque to accumulate and grow between the crown and gums Malocclusion - Crooked teeth make difficult the removal of dental plaque A reduction or elimination of risk factor(s) should be included in the treatment protocol designed for a particular patient. The periodontal problems which are associated with HIV infection include specific forms of gingivitis and necrotizing periodontal diseases, as well as with possible exacerbation of pre-existing periodontal disease 58, 59. 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