By the year 203 Carthage was in great danger of attack from the forces of the Roman general Publius Cornelius Scipio, who had invaded Africa and had won an important battle barely 20 miles (32 km) west of Carthage itself. If you want to be up to date with news on the portal and discoveries from the world of ancient Rome, subscribe to the newsletter. In this way he wanted to provoke Carthaginians to major battle as soon as possible. After Scipio’s capture of Tunis, the Carthaginians sought peace terms, but Hannibal’s subsequent return to Africa led to their renewing the war in 202. This site has existed since 2004 and is the largest compendium of knowledge about the history of ancient Rome. He stood to fight against Scypio on so called Great Fields in valley of the Bagradas river, but he was completely defeated, many people were lost and others ran away. Hannibal arrived too late to prevent Masinissa from joining up with Scipio, leaving Scipio in a position to choose the battle site. Na licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa - Na tych samych warunkach 3.0. Finally Carthaginian made first important move. Syfax escaped to Numidia, but Lelius and Masynissa were after him and soon he was captured. If you have found a spelling error, please, notify us by selecting that text and pressing Ctrl+Enter. He confessed in front of Carhaginian Senate, that he lost not only a battle, but also a whole war and the only right solution is to make peace. – Titus Liviusz, Roman history ab urbe condita., IX, 30. Legionaries pressed futher and defeated second line too. The main advantage of Hannibal dissappointed him. Scipio advanced…. After final act of his bravery Hannibal hided himself in Hadrumetum from where he was called to Carthage. At Zama, in North Africa, fifty miles south of the city of Carthage, the Roman general Scipio Africanus met Hannibals forces and defeated them. Many of soldiers from the first line were killed. History. And specially by the battle of ZAMA in 202 B.C. If you have the opportunity to financially support the further translations – even with smaller amount – I will be very grateful. Roman army lost 1500 soldiers and Carthaginian 20.000. Zama, 202 BCE Publius Scipio, your unrelenting victories over Carthage's allies have brought your renown, but greater triumphs await! After defeat of Antiochia in war against Rome in 189 BCE Hannibal ecaped to Bitynia, where he commited suicide by drinking a poison, which he got from his father and he always carried in the ring. In Bulgaria, Polish archaeologists discovered…, Respect the faculty that forms thy judgments. Neither our ancestors started war about Sicilia neither we about Spain. According to this war gods will also decide. Carthaginian formed experimental first line, which was mix of archers and infantry. Today's Rank--0. Carthage under Hannibal takes on Rome under Scipio. The best leaders in this century looked at each other for the first time. Scipio was indeed magnanimous in victory, refusing to raze Carthage to the ground. Hannibal was placed in command of an army of many raw recruits and 80 untrained elephants. The best leaders in this century looked at each other for the first time. Scipio (235–183 BCE), also known as Scipio Africanus and Scipio the Elder, was a Roman general in the Second Punic War. Describe the concept of paterfamilias. One of the most famous conflicts in history, the Second Punic War (218–202 BCE) pitted the great Carthaginian general Hannibal Barca against Rome. Second—and perhaps even more vital to the outcome—Scipio had arranged his forces in maniples (small, flexible infantry units) with broad alleys between them. Your financial help is needed, in order to maintain and develop the website. Scypio reorganised his legionaries in normal battle formation and ordered frontal attack with main infantry forces. Possible that he wanted challenge Hannibal in the end. Hannibal set off from Adrymes ( now Sousse) and destroyed the military camp in Zama. They at once attacked the rear of the Hannibal’s army. To sum up elephants were not trained well and were scared to attack infantry standing in one formation. Conclusively ending the Second Punic War with a decisive Roman victory, the Battle of Zama must be considered one of the most important battles in ancient history. Commander survived difficulty in the south of Apenine peninsula, his army was broken and there was no chance for any support. Carthage, a powerful city-state in North Africa, had been a thorn in the side of Rome for many years, particularly under the generalship of Hannibal who had inflicted a heavy defeat on Rome at Cannae in 216 BC. Punic people who didn’t like conditions of peace started to believe in victory over the Roman conqueror. 5000 Hannibal’s soldiers escaped from the field of battle. Rest of his army tried to retreat from Romans, but only a few managed to do this. Get started! Then the second line of Hannibal consisted of Libian and Carthaginian recruits threw their spears in back of these, who were retreating. (more). Scipio and Hannibal rearrange their troops in a single line and battle remains stalemate until Roman cavalry returns and attacks Hannibal's infantry at the rear. At the very front stood 80 fighting elephants. Whole Punic army ( approx 30 thousands people) was destroyed without battle and with any lost on Roman side. ZAMA (202 BCE) Yozan D. Mosig and Imene Belhassen University of Nebraska at Kearney . At his command elephants went to battle. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! The Battle of Zama: October 19, 202 BCE On this day, October 19, in the year 202 BCE, Roman forces under the command of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, and with support from the Numidian King Masinissa, faced off against a Carthaginian force led by Hannibal himself. Fabius and others opposed it, preferring to simply expel Hannibal from Italy. For some time he stayed in Carthage. Mago, who had sustained battle wounds during a losing engagement in Liguria (near Genoa), died at sea during the crossing. In this way Hannibal collected 36.000footmen and 4000 horse riders, who were supported by Numidian nobleman Tychaios. Thousands of Roman soldiers marched on. Legionaries attacked they even harder to complete their destruction. Some night he ordered to attack hostile camp. Some 20,000 Carthaginians died in the battle, and perhaps 20,000 were captured, while the Romans lost about 1,500 dead. Keywords. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Scipios success as a commander culminated in his win at Za… The failure of the elephant charge can likely be explained by a trio of factors, with the first two being well documented and most important. Hannibal’s army was complemented by untrained and timid fighting elephants in amout of 80. Approx. Abstract: This article examines the Battle of Zama in 202, which ended the Second Punic War (218–201) between Rome and Carthage. Commanders had returned to their armies and started to set upranks. Of his three battle lines, only his seasoned veterans from Italy (between 12,000 to 15,000 men) were accustomed to fighting Romans; they were positioned at the rear of his formation. In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and Sardinia from Carthage and forced Carthaginians to pay an even greater indemnity than the payment exacted immediately following the war. This moment of chaos was used by king Masynissa, who defeated Hannibal’s allies with one effective attack. Also the current course of battle raised their morale, so they defeated Cathaginians quite fast. Hannibal's force was greater in numbers than Scipio's, and he had eighty war elephants. Shortly it was considered that there is only one solution. Hundreds of Carthaginians lost their lifes in flames, the rest of them ran straight to the Roman swords, who surrounded this fiery hell. Roman Senate had awareness about hopeless situation of Carthage and put up hard conditions according to a peace, which were rejected by Carthaginians. Under his orders were also supposedly 600 Numidian horse riders of Dakamas. Soon at the head of large army he landed at African coast. On the left wing Hannibal placed Numidian and on the right wing Carthaginian cavalry. Scypion was a winner. Someone posted a comment under my video on Twitter saying "Zama is a very big Roman lie and didn't happen." Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Scipio, for his part, marched up the Bagradas (Majardah) River toward Carthage, seeking a decisive battle with the Carthaginians. Scypion desired to bring Carthaginians even more in their doom. Footmen were not set in shape of chessboard, but troops in the second row stood directly behind the first line of hastatii. The Battle of Zama, fought in Numidia in North Africa, ended the Second Punic War. They couldn’t to conduct any war without Roman permission, what’s more they had to pay huge contribution of 10 thousands silver talents during a period of fifty years. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. That was a reversal of the situation in Italy, where Hannibal had held the advantage in cavalry and had typically chosen the ground. This line was longer than his and he was affraid to be outflanked, so he ordered to regroup his army. Battle of Zama, Zama, Punic war, battle, Punic army, fight, Roman, Hannibal, Carthage, Scipio, Numidia, Numidian cavalry, war, … Battle of Zama. As the two armies approached each other, the Carthaginians unloosed their 80 elephants into the ranks of the Roman infantry, but the great beasts were soon dispersed and their threat neutralized. Attack of Hannibal’s fighting elephants on Roman formation. First riders ignited tents on the camp’s edges. Some elephants turned back and bumped into Numidian cavalry of Hannibal inflicting heavy lossses. In fact leggionaire’s camp was located on a spit jutted out into the sea and Carthaginians managed to bar the way to the mainland. After troops of principes best soldiers – triarii – took position. Battle of Zama (202 BC) Scipio’s Roman army defeated Hannibal’s Punic army in the battle fought during the 2nd Punic war in Africa. First consisted of 12.000 hired Moors (archers), Balearic slingers, Ligurians and Celts from Magon’s army. – Titus Livius, Roman histor ab urbe condita., IX, 30. Scipio and Hannibal rearrange their troops in a single line and battle remains stalemate until Roman cavalry returns and attacks Hannibal’s infantry at the rear. That Hannibal was fighting from a position of weakness does not in any way diminish Scipio’s victory for Rome, however. Fierce battle started. ... a posebno po tome što je Hanibal napokon poraţenThe paper deals with two representations of the Battle of Zama 202 BCE which are brought out by Livy and Polybius, two the most famous historiographers of Roman history. Dozens of gray animals ran towards the Romans. In addition to utilizing 80 war elephants that were not fully trained, Hannibal was also compelled to rely mostly upon an army of Carthaginian recruits that lacked much battle experience. It cointained well-trained soldiers, who served under Hannibal during Italian campaign. This file contains additional information such as Exif metadata which may have been added by the digital camera, scanner, or software program used to create or digitize it. One of us! Map Code: Ax02142. It was the battle that finally decided which power would be master of the Mediterranean region – Rome or Carthage. Stabbed with spears by riders of Laelius escaped traming Carthaginian cavalry. © Copyright 2004-2020 by Jakub Jasiński. He would first use his more than 80 battle elephants to cause confusion in the Roman front ranks. Their conversation is well known thanks to reports of Livius. 14. Two armies met each other on 19th of October 202 BCE on valley near Zama south of Carthage. The Battle of Zama—fought in 202 BC near Zama, marked the end of the Second Punic War. guardians of women. Hannibal escaped from the battle and went to his estates in the east near Hadrumetum for some time before he returned to Carthage. Hannibal’s forces were all but surrounded; 20,000 … Decimated soldiers were pushed back by victorious Romans. They were force to give back all their fleet except ten patrol ships and give hostages as a guarrantee of fulfiling all treaty’s conditions. Peace depends on you, victory lays in the hands of the gods. King Masynissa, who supported Scypio in battle of Zama was responsible to take control over all Carthage’s activities in Africa. Laelius then charged and at once smashed them. / Wikimedia Commons. The Battle of Zama (202 BCE). If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. In 204 BCE situation of Carthage in second Punic war was already hard, Spain was lost and Masynissa king of Numidia went to the side of Rome after Carthaginians betrayed him and supported his rival Syfax, who was crowned by them as next Numidian king. Other animals ran futher crushing many soldiers, but they were thrown with stones and stabbed with javelins and finally escaped from battlefield. The battle took place at a site identified by the Roman historian Livy as Naraggara (now Sāqiyat Sīdī Yūsuf, Tunisia). In 201 BCE peace was made according to which Carthaginians could only keep their properties in Africa. Initially, I dismissed this as a classic internet conspiracy theory, but on closer examination, there are quite a few people who believe the battle was made up for political reasons by the Roman commanders, who actually negotiated a peaceful settlement to the Second Punic War. Frighted inhabitants of Carthage expected that sooner than later their city will be attacked by unbeatable conqueror of Spain. Battle was started by attack of Numidian riders. Both Cathage and Rome agreed upon these conditions. IMPERIUM ROMANUM is in process of translation over 3300 Polish articles about history of ancient Rome. I believe that I can count on a wide support that will allow me to devote myself more to my work and passion, to maximize the improvement of the website and to present history of ancient Romans in an interesting form. Omissions? He return to this place in his thirties after he had left as a child. Advertisement. You can find more information here. The Battle of Zama: battle. Before main battle he visited Scypio. With Gregg Wallace, Mike Loades, Lynette Nusbacher, Gordon Summers. The last and decisive battle of the Second Punic War, it effectively ended both Hannibal’s command of Carthaginian forces and also Carthage’s chances to significantly oppose Rome. These spaces were hidden with light cavalry, who had order to escape to the rear of the army if necessary. 178 meters after second line third part of the army was set. Battle of Zama 202 BCE $ 3.95. Defeat in battle of Zama was an end for strong Cathaginian country. If the file has been modified from its original state, some details such as the timestamp may not fully reflect those of … The last and decisive battle of the Second Punic War, it effectively ended both Hannibal’s command of Carthaginian forces and also Carthage’s chances to significantly oppose Rome. Two armies met each other on 19th of October 202 BCE on valley near Zama south of Carthage. Since 2019, there is also active English version of the website, which is regularly enlarged with new articles and posts. All for this to not be captured by Romans and be placed in the cage during their triumph. Summary [] Description Battle of Zama, 202 BC Author/Source The Department of History, United States Military Academy Permission In the public domain as original works of the United States federal government and/or military File:Battle of Zama, 202 BC.svg is a vector version of this file. Cause was found quickly – some day during a storm few of Roman transport ships were drowned and Carthaginians collected all loads thrown out by the sea. First, the elephants were not well trained. Patrick Hunt (Ph.D., Institute of Archaeology, UCL, University of London, 1991) is an archaeologist and historian who has taught at Stanford University since 1993. Situation was very tense. Once his allies had arrived, Scipio had about the same number of troops as Hannibal (around 40,000 men), but his 6,100 cavalrymen, led by the Numidian ruler Masinissa and the Roman general Gaius Laelius, were superior to the Carthaginian cavalry in both training and quantity. – Titus Livius, Roman history ab urbe condita., IX, 35. The Romans crushed the soldiers of the first line and then those of the second. He had trained his men to move to the side when the elephants charged, locking their shields and facing the alleys as the elephants passed by. In one moment according to order of Scypio they started to shout, hit the shields and trumpeters played at the same time. Romans suffered small losses, because elephants ran through empty spaces between their battle order. The Battle of Zama, 202 BC. Publius Cornelius Scipio entered Africa after reclaiming the Iberian Peninsula for the glory of Rome, … What happened that day in ancient Rome? 0. But Roman cavalry disappeared as well, because they chased the remainings. The Battle of Zama left Carthage helpless, and the city accepted Scipio’s peace terms whereby it ceded Spain to Rome, surrendered most of its warships, and began paying a 50-year indemnity to Rome. Vol 3 Ep 30 - BATTLE - The Battle of Zama ( 202 BCE ) 202 BCE - This world isn't big enough for both of us. (…) You first started. In the second line stood citizens of Carthage and Libian lieges. After their landing Romans started to siege Utika, city north of Carthage. Centre was created by armed legionary infantry, which was set in three lines. Legionaries however did not looked scared and they stood hard in one place. The content of the portal is additionally regularly published on social channels (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Wykop, Reddit, Quora) to promote knowledge about ancient Rome. Because Hannibal could not transport the majority of his horses from Italy, he was forced to slaughter them to keep them from falling into Roman hands. Most of Hannibal’s formations were lost, but his veterans were defending relentlessly. Having staged a successful invasion of Africa and having vanquished its canniest and most-implacable foe, Rome began its vision of a Mediterranean empire. In this way in battle order some spaces were left. Results. Suddenly cavalry of Lealius and Masynissa returned from the pursuit. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 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